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posted Autumn 2001
Newsletter No. 2, Autumn 2001

This is the second Newsletter of the International Forum for Suppressed Music (IFSM). Thank you for your warm and enthusiastic response to the first newsletter. In this issue we bring you news of concerts, conferences, publications, recordings and other matters to do with music that was suppressed by the Third Reich and other totalitarian regimes.

The IFSM Newsltter welcomes discussion, information and exchange of views. There are 453 subscribers to this newsletter from Brazil to Australia: conductors, musicologists, festival organisers, writers and critics. We are especially interested in having details of any Goldschmidt works or events planned for his centenary year 2003. By special request we will create a space for 'For Sale/Wanted' items relating to this music. As record collectors some subscribers have a number of recordings for sale/exchange, which might be of interest to other readers, as well as their own wants list.

If you no longer wish to receive this Newsletter, please contact us saying 'unsubscribe to IFSM Newsletter' in the subject heading by clicking contact If you know someone who might like to receive it, please ask them to email us saying 'subscribe to Newsletter' and to tell us something about themselves or you could send us their email address. We will shortly launch the 'interactive list' that many of you have indicated that you would like to be on. Here will be a more immediate and unmonitored opportunity to communicate with one another. If you would like to try this then please let us know.

The IFSM was established in 1999 by the Jewish Music Institute (JMI) at SOAS, University of London. The President is Sir Simon Rattle and the Executive Committee and Editorial Board include Michael Haas, Executive Producer for the Decca series 'Entartete Musik', Erik Levi, author of Music in the Third Reich, Lloyd Moore, composer, at Boosey and Hawkes, and Martin Anderson, journalist, writer and publisher. Members of the Advisory Board include Christopher Hailey of the Schreker Foundation, Los Angeles, and the Schoenberg Institut, Vienna, and Albrecht Dümling of Musica Reanimata Berlin.
Geraldine Auerbach MBE, Newsletter co-ordinator.

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1. Thwarted Voices, 25 November 2001 at the South Bank:
Introduction by Michael Haas

Michael Haas, executive producer of the Decca Records Series 'Entartete Musik' gives an introduction to five concerts: Lieder, chamber and orchestral music plus cabaret, and the first staged production in Britain of Max Brand's exciting opera Maschinist Hopkins, all on Sunday 25 November 2001. Composers featured during the day under the title Thwarted Voices, Music Suppressed by the Third Reich are Brand, Schreker, Goldschmidt, Korngold, Schoenberg, Pavel Haas, Karl Amadeus Hartman, Webern, Zemlinsky, Tintner and Eisler. President of the IFSM Sir Simon Rattle says: It is hoped that as we become more acquainted with them, the works by these composers, who contributed so much to the development of twentieth century music, will continue to enter the mainstream of musical life around the world today. Tickets 020 7960 4242 or book online www.rfh.org.uk This South Bank Centre day is part of the Festival Vienna/Berlin/London - Trails of Creativity, 1918-1938 created by the Austrian Cultural Forum, London, and also part of the JC Festival of Jewish Arts and Culture.

Michael Haas writes:

Sitting in a concert of music from the second half of the twentieth century, it's easy to wonder how and why its language is so challenging and often, difficult to comprehend. As we look at the beginning of the century, we find a surge towards modernism, but parallel, we find a slow organic development into a much less aggressive and confrontational idiom. Indeed after the First World War, Weimar Republic Germany became the capital of musical pluralism while all of central Europe developed into a tangle of factions, schools, and aesthetics mixed with politics and reaction.

The old systems had failed and new systems were being put into place. Should the twentieth century have a sub-title, it would be "The Rush to Utopia". The "ism" supplied the answer to all of society's needs: Socialism, Fascisms, and Communism. Religion, the basis of society had been disproved as being fundamental to the way things were. Darwin and Freud offered scientific and intellectual answers to seemingly impossible questions about humans and humanity. Technology had started to make an impact on the daily lives of everyone. The arts were responding by trying to take on social and even scientific agendas. Schoenberg and Josef Matthias Hauer created tonal systems that were meant to replace the supposedly limited diatonic system of Western music. Stravinsky and Hindemith tried to create a music that was objective and technical.

In this environment, the relatively recently liberated Jewish bourgeoisie had, in the space of a few short generations, risen to lead music in all of its genres. Schoenberg, the reformist had questioned Western tonal tradition; Schreker, the most performed composer of the day, created an operatic language that was Freudian, dark and erotic; Wachsmann, Hollaender, Heymann and Spoliansky dominated cabaret and revue; Edmund Meisl and Josef Zmigrod, also known as Allan Grey, were the first choices in cinema music; Kalman and Oskar Strauss were some of the principle operetta composers of the day and all of this activity was underpinned by Jewish writers, directors and collaborators.

From today's perspective, a pattern emerges, one which puts the lie to Hitler's claim that Jews had subverted through Modernism – "cultural Bolshevism", as they called it – German culture and music. Indeed, the list of true musical "subversives" of the day is almost astounding by its lack of Jewish players: Krenek, Berg, Webern, Hindemith, Zillich and Hauer were all good German and Austrian 'Aryans'. Interestingly, it is a pattern that had repeated itself earlier in the Nazi attempt to hold Jews responsible for 'Modern Art'. The artists of the notorious exhibition 'Entartete Kunst' were almost to a man, non-Jews.

The truth that emerges from today's perspective is that Jews between the wars in central Europe were progressives – but not underminers of German culture. As a successfully enfranchised minority, they were naturally liberal and socially tolerant. As artists, they enjoyed their success and the pleasure they were able to give to what was a massive and appreciative Jewish and predominantly, non-Jewish public. Not only in music had they scaled the social heights. This newly found respectability and success was not about to be sacrificed. Jews were immensely successful at being Germans; many had fought in the previous World War and were proud of their nation.

Hitler's lie was to blame Jews for all of the non-traditional trends in music and art, and then to claim that 'Aryan' musicians and artists who were the major experimenters had essentially been 'infected' by them. Thus, they were able to put an anti-Semitic spin on something with as few Jewish participants as the artists in the exhibition of 'Entartete Kunst' in 1937.

Already by 1933, anti-Semitic policies had removed the works of Jewish composers from the stages, opera houses and concert venues of Germany. In fact, it is now clear that National Socialist international influence, and its campaign of anti-Semitism were able to reach as far as Britain's own musical politics.

The removal of Jewish composers and those composers 'infected' by Jewish influence, led to a number of non-Jewish composers leaving central Europe out of solidarity. Bartók wrote a letter from his American exile, protesting that he had been excluded from the list of degenerate composers. Martinù never returned to Czechoslovakia, Robert Stolz resisted all pleading to stay and left after helping countless Jewish colleagues escape. Ralph Benatzky, without the financial resources of Robert Stolz, left for an uncertain future conducting in Broadway pits.

The voices that were 'thwarted' were those of tolerance, moderation and liberalism. From a musical cultural point of view, "thwarted" had also been the voices of organic transition from the nineteenth century's Romantic language to that of the twentieth. The composition class of Franz Schreker had been a class of progressives who had no intention of wholly abandoning tonality. Other composers, such as Korngold, Zemlinsky, Rettich, Ettinger and indeed Schreker himself saw progress not in the subversion of consonance, but in linear structure and a more complex use of polyphony. For these composers, music remained a deeply sensual experience. This sensuality, comparable with the erotic paintings of the Viennese Jugendstil, was also a progressive means of breaking with the idealised notions of human nature the Romantics had represented.

With the South Bank Day, 'Thwarted Voices, Music Suppressed by the Third Reich', we follow the International Forum for Suppressed Music and the Jewish Music Institute's colloquium at SOAS London University on the composition class of Franz Schreker, a class that arguably would have changed the nature of music today had it been allowed to develop. At the South Bank, we are able to present in as many media as possible the wide range of music that was affected. We have Max Brand's masterpiece The Mechanic Hopkins as our centrepiece. Brand was a student of Schreker and his opera was not only the operatic, but also the theatrical, sensation of 1930. It presents a mixture of social commentary, jazz and music that would have been part of a new way forward had Brand been allowed to build on his success. We also have recitals of art songs and chamber music, an orchestral concert and an evening of theatre, cinema and cabaret songs. No daylong event can quite cover all of the damage done to our musical life by Hitler and the Third Reich, but attending some of the concerts may highlight the fact that had these voices not been frustrated, the voices of today's composers and those following the war, would probably have been very different.

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2. Maschinist Hopkins & Weimar Opera
Peter Tregear, conductor of Maschinist Hopkins, writes:

Political crises. Economic turmoil. Moral turpitude. So we have come to imagine cultural life in the so-called Weimar Republic, the name given for the period of government in Germany that stretched from the end of the First World War to the rise of the Third Reich. It is perhaps not surprising, then, that we have also come to think of most significant cultural artefacts of the era as those arising out of the more overtly subversive or underground art moments, such as the cabaret or avant-garde expressionism. But some of the most interesting and successful artistic enterprises were in fact undertaken in the hallowed realm of the opera house. Here, above all else, music – that aesthetic medium so integral to German self-esteem – interacted in the most intense way with drama, dance, and spectacle and composers were quick to exploit the possibility to use this medium to explore some pressing social issues of the day, and associated upheavals in received notions of what modern culture was, or indeed ought to be. New works for the opera stage abound and opera houses absorbed it readily – it was de rigueur for up to half a season in a house to consist of new work. Furthermore, works such as Brecht's and Weill's Dreigroschenoper (1927), and Aufstieg und Fall der Stadt Mahagonny (1929), Alban Berg's Wozzek (1925), Ernst Køenek's Jonny Spielt auf (1926) and Paul Hindemith Neuse vim Tag (1929) were also astoundingly successful. Even at the end of the 1920s, just as the economic tide was turning against the fragile Republic, a work by a relatively unknown Austrian composer appeared destined to be the most successful opera of them all. This was Max Brand's Maschinist Hopkins, and in its first year it was to be performed no less that 134 times. By 1932 it had received 37 productions, including performances in Czechoslovakia, Sweden, and the Ukraine, statistics almost unparalleled in operatic history.

Max Brand was born in Limber [L'viv] in what is today the Ukraine in 1896 to parents of Romanian-Jewish decent. At that time Lemberg was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and after service in the Austrian army in World War I Brand became a student of Franz Schreker at Imperial and Royal Academy for Music and the Performing Arts. Schreker was then the most distinguished teacher of composition in the country, and Brand attended classes alongside Ernst Køenek, Alois Haba, Karol Rathaus and Wilhelm Grosz, among others. In 1920 Brand followed Schreker to Berlin, returning to Vienna in 1924 to work as a teacher and composer. His experience of the post-War turmoil in both capitals made him sympathetic to the ideals of the Communist Party, and he started composing music for political revues. The coincident development of a radical musical language by Schoenberg and others encouraged Brand to conflate his views on radical politics and radical music, and he came to see both as valid responses to the problems of the times. He thus became the first composer outside Schoenberg's circle to use the so-called 'twelve-tone technique', in his five settings of Else Laske-Schuller's Hebräische Balladen composed in 1927. But Brand was above-all a man of the theatre and when, in 1928, his wife became sick with tuberculosis, he decided to put both his expanded compositional technique and awareness of the political Zeitgeist to the service of a work which could at the same time address a large audience, hoping thereby to raise the money needed for her treatment. This represented no great artistic compromise, however, as by this time Brand had observed enough of the work of his contemporaries to know that art as a medium for social critique did not need to be sacrificed in the service of popularity. Both Køenek's Jonny spielt auf, and Weill's Dreigroschenoper, for instance, possessed critical ambitions that extended far beyond their achieving mass appeal.

Even before the first performance in Duisburg on 13 March 1929 the musical and dramatic qualities of Maschinist Hopkins were recognised by his contemporaries. Alban Berg was especially impressed, and it may be that the many musical and dramatic similarities between Hopkins and Lulu are more than coincidental. Brand showed not only that he could write twelve-tone music that was lyrical and dramatic, he was also not averse to adapting other contemporary operatic idioms, as exemplified by the music of Schreker, Giacomo Puccini, and Richard Strauss, when the moment called for it. He also demonstrated a willingness to comment critically upon these idioms and their increasing alienation from the pop culture of the day by placing them side-by-side with passages of American jazz and other popular dance styles, or by distorting them for ironic effect. The overall result is a score, which is both entertaining and provocative, at once in tune with the dramatic and critical ambitions of the libretto. The subject matter of Maschinist Hopkins drew upon common preoccupations of the time, as famously witnessed by Fritz Lang's film Metropolis (1926) and the aesthetic experiments at the Bauhaus. The libretto, however, was entirely the composer's own work and betrays something of Brand's own political views about the social impact of a modernised, technology-driven, workplace. Brand's representation of technology is nothing if not ambivalent: we are shown the potential of technology to act as both our saviour and oppressor. Although the machines that we encounter today are more likely to be of the smaller, electronic kind, the issues Brand's opera raises about technologically mediated human relationships remain as relevant as ever.

Perhaps the greatest achievements of the libretto is the extent to which it moulds such nominally 'exotic' themes for an opera into a dramatic form which at once works within, and plays with, operatic conventions. Thus the three principal characters in the opera, Max, Nell and Hopkins, are recognisable as adaptations of operatic archetypes. At the same time, Brand creates a narrative structure which owes more than a little to cinema; indeed, the story unfolds somewhat in the manner of an operatic film noir. Furthermore, Brand's decision to give the machines an anthropomorphic presence allowed for the most spectacular staging. They also serve as both a kind of literal re-working of that old operatic cliché, the deus ex machina, and as an expressionistic projection of our very modern fears about technology – an idea which perhaps has found its more recent parallel in films like 2001: A Space Odyssey, The Matrix and A.I.

After the Nazi seizure of power in Germany in 1933 performances of Hopkins were banned, and it remained unperformed for more than 40 years, during which it was remembered, if at all, as a mere curio piece. Today, though, we perhaps ought to see the fate of the work as emblematic of the cultural loss that accompanied the political and humanitarian catastrophe of the Nazi era. Brand fled Europe, eventually settling in the United States, where he continued to work in the theatre and experimenting with electronic music (including pioneering work with Robert Moog), but without ever achieving such a level of recognition again. He returned to Austria in 1975, retiring to a studio in Langenzersdorf, near Vienna, where he continued to promote the use of electronic music until his death in 1980. The first stage revival of Hopkins had to wait for another four years. Two years later BBC Radio 3 produced a studio version to an English text, but the work has never been staged outside Western Europe. Hopkins was most recently produced in Giessen, Germany, in 1999-2000.

While, of course, operas continued to be written that similarly concern themselves with pressing social issues – works by Benjamin Britten and Hans Werner Henze, for instance – these operas nevertheless have not been able to engage with the listening habits and emotional responses of their audience in quite the direct way as had composers like Brand. In part this is perhaps because opera has now bequeathed its mantle as a mass medium to film, one which also radically combines image, music and action. But maybe it is also because history denied us an opportunity to build upon a tradition that, for a brief moment, seemed to demonstrate that a critically involved culture, one which combined accessibility with aesthetic integrity, was in fact possible in our modern age.

Peter Tregear © 2001

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3. Café Berlin: political and popular songs from cabaret and theatre, revue and operetta. (part of Thwarted Voices, Music Suppressed by the Third Reich, 25 November 2001, South Bank Centre, London)
Michael Haas

The world of German popular song was more thoroughly manipulated and destroyed by the anti-Semitic laws brought in by the Nazis in 1933 than was any other area of music. Virtually all of the major composers of film music and 'Schlager' as the hit songs from cinema were called, were Jewish. Most of operetta composers were Jewish as were virtually all of the librettists. German cabaret, revue and theatre, however, as a platform for political comment and satire were doubly unpalatable for the National Socialists. Their combination of satire with an almost exclusive Jewish authorship resulted in a heavier hand on these works than almost any of the other genres of popular music. Many of the non-Jewish writers were either Communist or anarchists resulting in an almost total ban on all popular music. To the National Socialists, popular music in its pre 1933 form was 'Entartung' ('degeneration') personified. Eva Meier will perform a selection of forgotten political and popular songs from cabaret and theatre, revue and operetta in a special recital that covers most light music fields which were banned and replaced by 'wholesome' Aryan equivalents. The transition to Nazi 'Schlager' was seamless and as such, the music which disappeared overnight was virtually irretrievably lost. Eva Meier's selection for Thwarted Voices on 25 November on the South Bank will feature some of the most important works of the period – songs which are as timeless today as they were when composed. Eisler, Hollaender and others are now receiving their rightful recognition as chroniclers of an age which bigotry tried to wipe from history. Michael Haas

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4. Worldwide Berthold Goldschmidt Centenary Celebrations 2003

The IFSM newsletter is collating all performances and events worldwide for the centenary of Berthold Goldschmidt (born 18 January 1903) and including them under the heading, 'Worldwide Berthold Goldschmidt Centenary Celebrations 2003'

Already the BBC is planning a series of Broadcasts, and in London Toccata Press will publish a symposium of essays covering all of Goldschmidt's music, with contributions from a phalanx of leading musicologists, many of whom knew Goldschmidt personally. A live Symposium and this publication are being timed to coincide with the centenary itself.

Goldschmidt's output spans virtually the whole of the twentieth century, from the early Passacaglia, written in 1925 when he still a pupil of Franz Schreker at the Berlin Hochschule, to his final work, the valedictory Deux nocturnes for soprano and orchestra, completed in London in 1996 at the age of 93. The story of how he fled Nazi Germany for London in the 1930s where he worked in virtual obscurity until a remarkable flowering of interest in the 1980s and '90s is undoubtedly one of the most striking events in late twentieth-century musical history. His output includes works in all the major genres including two operas, orchestral works, concertos, vocal music with orchestra and piano, four fine string quartets and a host of pieces for smaller combinations.

For further information on Goldschmidt and his works, please visit the Boosey & Hawkes website www.boosey.com or contact Lloyd Moore on tel: + 20 7291 7229, or email at lloyd.moore[at]boosey.com for a copy of the new Goldschmidt brochure. Send your contribution to this celebration to contact

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5. Report by Erik Levi, on the Second Biennial International Conference on Twentieth-Century Music.
Goldsmiths College University of London June 28-31, 2001

The opening session of this conference was specifically devoted to the theme of 'Exile and Suppressed Music'. With Michael Haas as chairman, three speakers presented fascinating papers that explored very different aspects of this subject. Erik Levi (Royal Holloway University of London) opened proceedings with a controversial paper entitled 'Against the Blood and Soil of the Country: the Nazis suppression of Modernism in Germany. He outlined the rise of the conservative right in German musical life during the late 1920s and early 1930s and its growing impact on concert and operatic programmes of the period. Drawing upon material promoted at the annual festivals of the Allgemeine Deutsche Musikverein, Levi argued that the changing climate of opinion that was anti-modernist and racist in outlook had already surfaced well before the Nazis seized power.

Ale_ Bre_ina of the Bohuslav Martinù Foundation in Prague discussed the unique and tragic situation of Martinù who had the misfortune of suffering permanent exile from his native country as a result of totalitarianism. In 1940 he had been forced to leave France for the United States to escape the clutches of the Gestapo. Returning to Europe after the Second World War, Martinù contemplated a return to Czechoslovakia but this was thwarted by the Communist seizure of power in 1948.

Although Martinù died in Switzerland in the 1950s, he was at least accorded some degree of recognition in Czechoslovakia during the last years of his life. Less fortunate in this respect were two exiled composers, Vitìzslava Kapralová and Georg Tintner, whose careers and outputs were presented in a highly sympathetic manner by Matthias Würz (University of York). Würz provided the audience with some fascinating recorded music examples to suggest that both composers deserve far wider dissemination than hitherto.

While further discussion of the papers was limited by a tightly organised conference timetable, there was a lively exchange of views from the floor, including some contentious debate regarding the extant to which the BBC actively promoted the music of exiled composers during the postwar era.

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6. Concert in Amsterdam honouring Leo Smit.
Sylvia J Goodman writes:

Leo Smit and his wife died in the Nazi death camp at Sobibor in 1943. As a cousin I was privileged to be invited to a concert (Het Nederlandse Muziekgala) to honour his memory on 5th September in the Kleine Zaal of the Concertgebouw in Amsterdam. The concert was an informal occasion and included a reception and book signing, since it provided a platform for the launch of a book on his life, entitled "Silhouetten, De componist Leo Smit (1900-1943)" by Jurjen Vis (Donemus, Amsterdam, 2001.)

Dr. Vis approached me some time ago with questions about Leo's life, and that of his sister, Nora, whom I knew well. As a result I and other members of the family have contributed many photographs as well as much information to the book. Dr. Vis spent two and half years gleaning material from surviving family, friends and pupils of Leo Smit in Rio de Janeiro, London, and Paris as well as various parts of Holland. Although the book is written in Dutch there is a summary in English and a detailed genealogy of the Smit and Ricardo (his mother's side) families.

Leo Smit was born into a musical Jewish family in Amsterdam. His orchestral suite Silhouetten - of the book's title - was premiered at the Concertgebouw early in his career under the influence of Sem Dresden. But later Leo moved to Paris, where he enhanced his reputation in the world of music for film and theatre as well as for the concert platform. He was exposed to the influence of Schulhoff and Markevitch, and to that of a number of Dutch composers living in Paris at that time. He was married to Lientje de Vries in 1933, and three years later they moved to Brussels, then back to Amsterdam in 1937. He continued writing, playing and teaching music right up to the time he was deported. His opus includes both orchestral and chamber music, but sadly his film and theatre music has not survived. The concert was arranged by the Vrienden Nederlandse Muziek in conjunction with the Leo Smit Stichting (Foundation) which commissioned the biography. It featured Leo Smit's Piano Suite (1926) played by Frans van Ruth, who was joined by Eleonore Pameijer for the Flute Sonata (1939-43). These two musicians have been responsible for the establishment of the Foundation, and for bringing knowledge of Leo Smit and his music to a wider public.

Among other talks that gave a celebratory air to the evening was one by Eleonore Pameijer, and another by Dr. Vis, who hoped we would delight in the music Leo has left us rather than dwell on what might have been. The complete works are available in a four-CD boxed set, also under the Donemus imprint. It was produced on the label Composers Voice 90-93 (MuziekGroep Nederland). The book and the music are obtainable from Jewish Music Distribution jmduk[at]hotmail.com

Claude Esterson, another of Leo's cousins, has written something about the music, as follows:

"Leo Smit's flute sonata was the central work performed at the concert on 5th September at the launch of the biography, "Silhouetten." This sonata was his last completed work, and although the outer movements were written between 1939 and 1941, the middle movement, lento, was not composed until 1943, in the darkest days of the occupation and shortly before his death in April that year.

" The composition shows traces of the jazz idiom and also calls to mind something of the musical styles of Milhaud, Poulenc and Ravel. It is, however, a highly personal work with a beautiful and very moving central slow movement. If one were to hear the piece without knowing the composer, an educated guess would lead to French music of the 1930s, but with a highly individual element.

"The performance by Eleonore Pameijer (flute) and Frans van Ruth (piano) was very warmly received."

You will find more information on : www.leosmit.nl or email info[at]leosmit.nl.

Martin Anderson reviewed the new Donemus set (CV90-93) and a simultaneous release of a CD of chamber music from MDG (304 0995-2) in the March issue of International Record Review:

A little over a year ago you might have spotted an obituary or two for Leo Smit, the American composer and pianist who died in December 1999. Well, that's not the Leo Smit we have to hand on these CDs (though it would be good to have some more of his music available on disc, too). That Leo Smit, whatever his relative neglect, lived out his days and died at peace in his late 70s; this Leo Smit, a Dutch Jew, was deported from Amsterdam to Sobibor in spring 1943 and murdered, it seems, within three days of his arrival. If he had survived until his birthday on 10 May, he would have been 43. Beate Schröder-Nauenburg's intelligent and well-informed booklet notes with the MDG chamber-music CD quite rightly point out that, whereas the composers imprisoned in Terezín (Theresienstadt) – Viktor Ullmann, Pavel Haas, Hans Krása and Gideon Klein chief among them – have attracted the attention of scholars and musicians, the music of the Dutch composers slaughtered by the Nazis has so far more or less escaped serious investigation. They include Jan van Gilse (1881–1944) and Nico Richter (1915–45) as well as Smit. Van Gilse's music has now featured in a number of recordings; Smit first came into the limelight in a big way in 1998, when NM Classics released the Symphony of 1939, the 1937 Concerto for piano and winds (whose similarity to Stravinsky is not confined to the scoring) and the Cello Concertino, also written in 1937. Now, in the never-raining-but-pouring manner that is typical of the CD market, MDG releases a disc of Smit's chamber music at the same time as Donemus brings out a four-CD set of his complete output. He emerges from the enterprise as a substantial composer – an uneven one, perhaps, but then he was hardly given a chance to consolidate the achievement of the first part of his career. The style – a neo-classical, sometimes dry, manner offset by considerable wit – turns out to lie somewhere between Stravinsky and Poulenc/Milhaud, and much closer to the French end of that axis; indeed, Smit lived in Paris between 1927 and 1933, when French musical life most closely resembled the cliché'd image of champagne effervescence that has since come down to us. Indeed, he can sometimes sound like a soberer version of Jean Françaix, whose music, I find, usually outlasts its initial charm; Smit's tougher, tighter harmonic language and more abrupt gestures give his works more staying power – as illustration try the 1929 Quintet for flute, string trio and harp or the Sextet for piano and wind quintet, written a year earlier.

The Donemus box divides the music into two CDs of chamber, vocal and piano music and two more of orchestral music, the latter presenting a man with more 'bottom', as they say; I wonder, indeed, whether some of the chamber music was written with domestic rather than public performance in mind – the unusual combination of oboe and cello in the Suite (1938), for example, suggests that Smit had particular players in view. The orchestral works both expand our view of the composer and underline his faults: the 1940 Concerto for viola and strings – which admits Hindemith as a further influence – has a rattling, knock-about finale, and the Cello Concertino contains some instantly beguiling melodic material, which occasionally hints at Smit's Jewish background. But he often fails to maintain the momentum that he has developed: his shifts of gear simply take too long, and you're left thinking, yes, yes, we know; get on with it. By far the most impressive orchestral score is the Symphony he wrote in Paris in 1936 – the only essay in the genre that he lived to write: you could almost pass it off as Honegger or Tansman (high praise in my book); the fractured lyricism of the slow movement is especially effective. The performances on the MDG and NM Classics discs are generally much stronger than those in the Donemus set: the rhythms are much crisper and more incisive (and this music lives on its rhythmic charge), and the recordings are brighter, with more transparency and depth. If you are a newcomer to Smit, and almost all of us are, you'll probably want to taste and try before acquiring all his music in one trusting swoop. In that case, it's a question of whether you prefer the tart insouciance of the chamber music on MDG or the more muscular textures of the three orchestral works on the NM Classics release. Of course, you'll then risk duplicating them if you like what you hear – and you'll miss the most modernist work in Smit's catalogue, the abruptly powerful Silhouettes (1922): its kaleidoscopic shifts of direction and touches of bizarrerie in the scoring (whip, car horn) show him to have been well abreast of events in Paris long before he settled there.

The MacLuhanist design boys got to the packaging of the Donemus set before the time-and-motion men: the plastic frames holding its four discs glued onto an unfolding cardboard strip, with the 84-page programme booklet stuck firmly in place ahead of them. That makes the presentation supremely impractical: you can't detach the illustrated booklet to read it (and there's lots of information to assimilate from Huib Ramaer's notes, the Dutch and English texts of which are given side by side on the cramped page), and you have to unravel your way forwards to reach the later CDs.

I've enjoyed getting to know this music; if you respond to the composers I've cited in comparison, I don't doubt you will, too.
Martin Anderson

You can order these and any other CDs by emailing and saying what you would like. You will receive an email repl with prices and methods of payment.

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7. Dmitri Schostakowitsch und DAs jüdische musikalische Erbe
(Dmitri Shostakovich and the Jewish Heritage in Music – English translation follows)

(Schostakowitsch-Studien, Band 3) Herausgegeben von Ernst Kuhn et al.. Mit Uebersetzungen aus dem Russischen von Ernst Kuhn. 1. Aufl., (studia slavica musicologica ; Bd. 18), kart., X + 354 S., Preis 98,00 DM oder 98,00 SFr., ISBN 3-928864-75-0

Gegenstand dieses dritten Bandes von Schostakowitsch-Studien ist ein Thema, dessen zahlreiche Facetten seit langem in der Fachwelt diskutiert werden, DAs aber auch die Musikfreunde in aller Welt immer staerker beschaeftigt. Folglich kommen die Beitraege zu diesem Band nicht nur aus Deutschland, sondern auch aus den USA, England, Schweden, Russland und Israel. Um dem internationalen Charakter dieser Zusammenschau Rechnung zu tragen, enthält der Band Arbeiten in englischer und in deutscher Sprache. Neben grundlegenden Arbeiten von Izaly Zemtsovsky ("Schostakovich and musical Yiddishism"), Timothy Jackson ("A Contribution to the Musical Poetics of Dmitri Shostakovich) und Solomon Volkow ("Dmitri Shostakovich's 'Jewish Motive': A Creative Enigma"), einem Essay von Vladimir Zak ueber Juedisches und Nicht-Juedisches bei Schostakowitsch, zwei Beitraegen über Schostakowitsch und Moissej (Myczieslaw) Weinberg (Nelly Kravitz: "Shostakovich-Weinberg: The Jewish songs in the echo of folk idiom"

und Per Skans: "Schostakowitsch und Myczieslaw Weinberg"), einer Arbeit von Marina Ritzarev ("When did Shostakovich stop using Jewish idiom?"), einem Beitrag von Gerhard Mueller über die 13. Symphonie Babij Yar, Arbeiten von Sigrid Neef über DAs juedische Element in Schostakowitschs Opernschaffen, von Guenter Wolter zum Fragenkomplex Schostakowitsch und Mahler sowie von Aufsaetzen zahlreicher weiterer Autoren bringt der Band auch wieder Texte von Schostakowitsch selbst in deutscher Erstveroeffentlichung. Abgerundet wird der Band MIT der Veroeffentlichung der beruechtigten "Anordnung Nr. 17" aus dem Jahre 1948, einer Auflistung von Werken sowjetischer Komponisten, deren Auffuehrung durch die Regierung der UdSSR verboten wurde. Erst nach dem bekannten Telephongespraech zwischen Stalin und Schostakowitsch, in welchem der Komponist seine Absage für die Teilnahme an der sowjetischen Propagandaveranstaltung Cultural and Scientific Conference for World Peace im New Yorker Waldorf-Astoria-Hotel MIT diesen Auffuehrungsverboten begruendete, wurden die Verbote am 16. Maerz 1949 auf Stalins persoenliche Anweisung wieder aufgehoben. DAs Dokument wird zum ersten Mal außerhalb Rußlands veroeffentlicht.

The third volume of "Schostakowitsch-Studien" focuses on a subject whose many facets have long been discussed by experts, but which is now being embraced by music lovers around the world as well. Thus, contributions to this volume come not only from Germany, but also from the USA, England, Russia and Israel, and to reflect the international character of this overview, it contains essays in both English and German. Along with foundational pieces by Izaly Zemtsovsky ("Schostakovich and Musical Yiddishism"), by Timothy Jackson ("A Contribution to the Musical Poetics of Dmitri Shostakovich) and by Solomon Volkow ("Dmitri Shostakovich's 'Jewish Motive': A Creative Enigma"), are two works on Schostakovich and Moissej (Myczieslaw) Weinberg (Nelly Kravitz: "Schostakovich-Weinberg: The Jewish Songs in the Echo of Folk Idiom" and Per Skans: "Schostakowitch und Myczieslaw Weinberg"). Also included are essays by Marina Ritzarev ("When did Shostakovich stop using Jewish Idiom"), Gerhard Mueller on the 13th Symphony Babi Yar, Sigrid Neef on Jewish elements in Schostakovich's operas, Guenter Wolter on the Schostakovich-Mahler complex, plus contributions by numerous other authors including texts by Schostakovich himself published for the first time in German.

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8. Socialist Realism and Music: Anti-Modernisms and Avant-gardes Conference,
Brno, Czech Republic, 1–3 October 2001 Report by Per Skans

The concept of Socialist Realism was created in the 1930s by the Soviet Communist Party, with the principal purpose of gaining control of the various areas of art. It had a considerable impact on the creative work in all Communist countries, but has nevertheless been discussed to a surprisingly little extent, so little, in fact, that historians sometimes erroneously speak of 'Social Realism' instead (thus revealing their own lack of knowledge).

On 1–3 October 2001 a colloquium on Socialist Realism took place at Brno, in the Czech Republic, arranged by the Musicology Department of the Masaryk University, the City of Brno and various others. The Colloquium is a yearly event that has been arranged for several decades. In earlier days it was unique in offering East and West German musicologists their only possibility for meeting and exchanging thoughts (which in fact had been one of the ideas of the shrewd Czech musicologists when originally planning the event; one of them said to me that it probably would not have been permitted in the capital, Prague, but in Brno, a city of about 400,000 inhabitants, the Party and secret police really didn't care).

Having been invited to this year's Colloquium I am happy to emphasise that the entire arrangements were done in not only a professional but also extremely friendly way. The task can hardly have been facilitated by the number of applicants for participation, which was about 120.

The impressive number of active participants over the three days was 38. Eighteen papers each were presented in English and German, two in French. Several participants were from Germany, a couple from the UK, one from Canada, one from Hong Kong, others from the Czech Republic, Slovakia, France, Finland, Slovenia, Hungary, Serbia and elsewhere.

Personally, I found an enormous stimulus in the circumstance that about two-thirds were presented by people with direct experience of living with Socialist Realism: their knowledge of the subject thus differed favourably from the shallow understanding sometimes displayed by western musicologists.

Regrettably, it is impossible to describe 38 contributions in detail, so I shall restrict myself to a few observations. First, Jiøí Fukaè, Professor of Musicology in Brno, talked about Socialist Realism as 'An Artificial System of the Ideological and Aesthetic Norms', emphasising inter alia a fact that usually is forgotten: that Communism survived Socialist Realism, the system that it had itself created, by quite a few years! His paper, as well as several following ones, described the concepts, prehistory and analogies of Socialist Realism. I also delivered a paper, with the title 'Sozialistischer Realismus und Nationalsozialistischer Realismus', comparing music policies in the USSR and Nazi Germany.

The motto of the second day was 'Geography of Socialist Realism', concentrating on differing aspects of the issue in various countries. Neil Edmunds, UK, presented a very interesting paper on the origins of Socialist Realism in the USSR, as related to the musical life there; Jan Spaèek of Brno spoke about 'Dancing Soc.-Real. Elements of Socialist Realism in the Light Music of Dmitri Shostakovich', and other speakers focused on a collection of countries such as China, Poland, Hungary, Slovenia, France, GDR and even Soviet Karelia, this group continuing on the last day, then with special emphasis on conditions in former Czechoslovakia.

It is obvious that the musicologists from the former East bloc are very eager to discuss and if possible explain this strange chapter of music history, something that they could not do freely as late as a dozen years ago. Someone spoke of Socialist Realism as having been hitherto a 'heisses Eisen' (a 'hot potato'), stressing that the same applied to the music policies in Nazi Germany and other dictatorships. It is my personal opinion that this can only be achieved by working quietly and methodically as we did here, and that it may take some time. But even if this is the case, work should be done as quickly as possible. In not too many years from now it will not be possible any more to find persons who experienced the emergence of Socialist Realism in the Soviet Union between 1932 and 1948. Per Skans, Uppsala

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9. Terezín Projects

Brundibar Only in recent years has the full story emerged about Terezín, the small Czech garrison town where European Jews were herded as a way station to the death camps. As the Nazis wished to show outsiders how well the inmates were treated they allowed cultural pursuits. Ironically a more free and intellectually exciting cultural life flourished inside Terezín than was allowed by the regime outside the Camp - before the transports took the artists and intellectuals away to Auschwitz and other death camps. Composers, Pavel Haas, Gideon Klein, Hans Krasa and Viktor Ullmann, pupils of Janáèek, Schoenberg and other major composers, wrote their last works in Terezín. Erwin Schulhoff, another Czech Jewish composer died in the War. These, and other composers who had to flee, were potentially great composers at the beginning of their careers. If there had been no Holocaust, the history of western classical music in the twentieth century would have been very different. Many of the Terezín composers' works have now been recorded, and performances have been given in Festivals world wide. There is so much for an audience to discover.

For information on repertoire, performances, recordings, educational programmes and archives see the website of Mark Ludwig's Terezín Chamber Music Foundation (Boston USA) at www.terezinmusic.org or contact David Bloch about the Terezin Memorial Music Project in Tel Aviv bloch2[at]post.tau.ac.il

EDA Edition Abseits Berlin: Terezin recordings and music publishing Director Tilman Hans Kannegeiser writes that EDA, the Berlin-based record company, is devoting a lot of its time and interest to the production and release of recordings of suppressed music. In 1999 they released the first German version of Hans Krasa's Brundibar. This was released as a 2 CD set with Hannalore Wonschick's feature 'Brundibar and the children of Terezin'. (EDA 015-2) Other world premiere recordings of Terezin music have been produced on EDA and more are scheduled. EDA has also pioneered the series 'Across Boundaries' with music by neglected and suppressed Russian composers. Future plans include music from the so-called 'Paris School' of exiled Polish Composers. Also planned are three volumes of piano music by the pupils of the great composition teacher in Vienna and Berlin, Franz Schreker, performed by the incredible Prof Kolja Lessing, the world's foremost performer and promoter of this undiscovered rich repertoire. (Lessing performed Karel Rathaus' Sonata no 1 at St John's, Smith Square in London in 2000, as part of a conference on Thwarted Voices, Music Suppressed by the Third Reich). EDA also plan an orchestral series with the Kammersinfonie Berlin of music by Toch, Schreker, Goldschmidt, Gerard and Weill. For more information email info[at]eda-records.com

Tilman combines his work on record production with his position as Director of the German part of the innovative joint venture between two Czech publishers and Bote and Bock in Berlin. This joint venture publishes the music of Hans Krasa, Pavel Haas, Gideon Klein and will shortly be publishing the music of other Terezin composers such as Jiri Kummerman, Zigmund Schul, Martin Roman, Karl Berman and others. To contact Tilman email him at info[at]eda-records.com EDA recordings are available from Jewish Music Distribution (contact)

Terezin Projects in the UK:

The Andrusier Ensemble which has dedicated its music-making and educational programmes to the composers of Terezín, will be making a tour of Northern Ireland next year. They performed Gideon Klein's Piano Trio at Britain's first Holocaust Memorial commemoration this January 2001, which was broadcast on BBC television. For details email ensemble[at]andrusier.demon.co.uk

Solaris Quartet Terezin concerts project

Nick Allen, the cellist of Solaris Quartet, recently visited Prague to prepare a series of Terezin concerts at the London College of Music, in Derby and next Autumn at the Imperial War Museum. (details at www.margaretmurphy.com: go to Solaris and then engagements). Hans Krasa's Children's opera Brundibar will be performed in English by a children's choir from Czech Republic, 7.30pm 11 November 2001. The Kenneth Trio will perform the Klein trio and Malcolm Miller will accompany Anya Szreter in Terezin Cabaret songs. This will be preceded by the first British screening of the film Theresienstadt, Gateway to Auschwitz at 4.00pm. Westminster Synagogue London. Tickets 020 8446 3244

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10. Other UK performances

Purcell Room 7.30pm Tue 29 Jan 2002 Holocaust Day Memorial Concert

To commemorate Holocaust Day 2002, two cousins, cellist Natalie Clein and playwright Julia Pascal connect their work. Natalie, winner of the BBC Young Musician of the Year, and a chosen ensemble will perform works banned by the Nazis and read extracts from Pascal's Holocaust Trilogy. Works will be chosen from: Schulhoff String Quartet No. 1, Goldschmidt Retrospectrum (trio for violin, viola and cello), Krasa Dance and Passacaglia and Fugue, Gideon Klein Piano Sonata, plus music by Hindemith, Krenek and Bloch.

All tickets £12 Concessions: £10. Box Office 020 7960 4242. Presented by the Pascal Theatre Company

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11. Music in Exile at the BBC Proms, summer 2001:
Martin Anderson is frustrated by missed opportunities In this extract from an article in The Independent of London in July, looking forward over the forthcoming Proms season, Martin Anderson lamented the conservative choice of composers selected to represent one of this year's Proms themes, "music in exile"

Theme 2 is that of composers in exile, and here the Proms planner, Nicholas Kenyon, has dropped the ball rather. Of course, Rachmaninov (Paganini Rhapsody, 21 August; Symphonic Dances, 2 September), Prokofiev (Third Piano Concerto, 27 August; Cinderella Suite, 3 September) and Stravinsky (a total of nine works during the season) composed much of their life's work out of their native Russia, as did Bartók (Concerto for Orchestra, 17 August; Third Piano Concerto, 2 September) and Ligeti (Requiem, 17 August) away from their beloved Hungary. But these are all composers we can expect to hear in the course of a normal concert season and as regular visitors to the Proms - passing their music off as a special theme is a cop-out.

A "music in exile" ticket would have been the ideal opportunity to introduce, say, the music of Estonian composer Eduard Tubin to the Proms - with 25,000 other Estonians, he fled to Sweden when the Soviets invaded in 1944. Tubin's blazing Third Symphony would have had the Prommers yelling their lungs out. Where's the music of Berthold Goldschmidt, Hans Gál and Andrzej Panufnik, three of the most distinguished composers to spend their years of exile here in Britain - Goldschmidt and Gál Hitlerflüchtinge and Panufnik a refugee from communist Poland? Where's Alexander Tansman, another Pole, and a double exile, from Poland and then from Nazi-occupied France, and the writer of nine thrilling symphonies? At least Schoenberg, in the year that sees the fiftieth anniversary of his death, gets a good look in, with eleven works, including the Variations for Orchestra (2 August), Violin Concerto (20 August) and the harrowing Holocaust commentary A Survivor from Warsaw (10 September) - and, after all this time, a new discovery, a Notturno for violin and strings (20 August). And Erich Wolfgang Korngold is given a hearing not through any of his concert works but with his film-score for The Adventures of Robin Hood, in the company of other escapees to Hollywood. That concert, on 14 August, is conducted by the one of the best-loved names in film music, Elmer Bernstein, who also treats us to some of his own scores, not least the Magnificent Seven.

Reproduced from The Independent, with permission. For more about Martin Anderson and Toccata Press see website
www.drakeint.co.uk/toccata-press

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12. Performances outside the UK
Poet, Stefan George, provided inspiring song texts

The publishing firm Castrum Peregrini was founded by a group of German-Jewish refugees hidden in an Amsterdam canal house during World War II. Its 50th anniversary celebration this year was dedicated to the poet Stefan George (1868-1933). The poems of Stefan George inspired a great number of composers to write songs. In Germany he was admired, for instance, by Franz Schreker, Walter Baunfels, Otto Vrieslander and many contemporaries. In Vienna the composers of the Second Viennese School were influenced by him: Schoenberg, Webern, Berg, Zemlinsky, Wellesz. After World War II composers such as Felix Wolfes were still interested in Stefan George's work.

A concert of songs to texts by Stefan George was held in Amsterdam in September, introduced by Caspar Wintermans. The performers were Jochen Kupfer (baritone) and Anne Buter (mezzo-soprano) accompanied by Reinild Mees (piano).

Ullmann, Korngold, Zemlinsky in Maine

Phillip Silver (Phillip_Silver[at]umit.maine.edu) is a pianist and faculty member at the School of Performing Arts, University of Maine, Orono, Maine, 04469, USA. Over the past several years he has organized concerts of music by suppressed composers and this summer he taught a survey course entitled 'Entartete Musik' at the University. He recently lectured on and performed works by Viktor Ullmann at the University of Maine and will be performing a number of works that fall under the heading of 'suppressed music.' On November 18th he is performing Viktor Ullmann's Piano Sonata No. 7 at St Michael's College in Burlington, Vermont. This is part of a concert devoted to suppressed music and musicians. On February 3rd, 2002, he will be giving a recital at the University of Maine in Orono. Included on the program will be Ullmann's Piano Sonata No. 5, Korngold's aria 'Ich ging zu ihm' from DAs Wunder der Heliane, and Zemlinsky's Trio Op. 3 for Piano, Clarinet and Cello.

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13. Book Reviews

Musikforschung – Faschismus – Nazionalsozialismus
ed. Isolde v. Foerster, Christoph Hust and Christoph-Hellmut Mahling ISBN 3-924522-06-5
Gesellschaft für Musikforschung/Are Edition, Mainz, 2001; 509pp; 89DM.
Contact: are-musik[at]t-online.de or info[at]are-musikverlag.de;
website: www.are-musikverlag.de/schriften.html
tel: +49 6131 4777474; fax: +49 6131 479759;
address: Postfach 310 108, 55062 Mainz

This substantial tome ('Musicology – Fascism – National Socialism') is the result of a conference held at Schloss Eggers (wherever that is: no one explains) on 8–11 March last year – so that bringing it out with such speed is an incredible achievement. It contains no fewer than 32 papers on aspects of music under totalitarian rule – chiefly under the Nazis, but also extending to the ventennio of the Fascist dictatorship in Italy. In fact, the analysis begins much earlier, with Thorsten Hindrichs' examination of German-nationalist tendencies in musicology at the beginning of the twentieth century; Birgitta Schmidt examines how musicology was used to support the idea of the nation-state before the Nazis' accession to power in 1933, and in his essay 'Versailles – Weimar – Potsdam' Matthias Pape documents how the political institutions that followed the First World War conditioned musicological concerns in the Third Reich. Further essays examine particular organisations, such as the 'Deutsche Sängerbund' (Friedhelm Brusniak) and Rosenberg's 'Sonderstab Musik' (Villem de Vries). Individual musicologists (Abert, Blume, Strobel and von der Nüll among them), establishments (the University of Cologne) and publications (Riemanns Musiklexikon and Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart) come under the microscope, as does Goebbels' ban on music-criticism. Pauline Micheels describes Dutch musical life under Nazi occupation, contrastingly juxtaposed to Heidy Zimmermann's survey of Switzerland from the 1920s to the 1940s. Other authors include such recognised authorities as Michael Walter (author of Hitler in der Oper), Pamela M. Potter (whose Most German of the Arts: German Musicology and Society from the Weimar Republic to the End of Hitler's Reich, Yale University Press, 1998, remains a model for such monographs), Peter Gülke and Friedrich Geiger, who is currently working on a book entitled Verfemte Musik ('Outlawed Music'), awaited with keen interest.

There is plainly a massive amount of information to be quarried from this book, and I can't yet pretend to have given it much more than a thorough skim. And while I am impressed by the rapidity with which the book has been brought to press, that speed is not without cost. There are minor slips that more methodical editing might have caught: for instance, the German edition of Potter's book is attributed to two different publishers within 23 pages. But that sort of stuff doesn't matter compared to the major – indeed, devastating – shortcoming of the publication: there is no index. That is an idiotic omission, and can't be condemned with enough force: it automatically reduces the usefulness of the book by at least half. There must be all manner of fact and insight in here that I would be delighted to have for my own research interests, but I'll have to read all 509 pages to discover what it is. How can grown scholars and publishers be so short-sighted? A few days of (admittedly mind-numbing) work would have done it, thereby transforming the book into a mine of information. As it is, to reach it you have to dig the entire bloody mine yourself. There's no bibliography either, but don't start me on that. Martin Anderson

'Where do you come from?' Hitler refugees in Great Britain then and now: The happy compromise!
Carl F. Flesch
ISBN 0-900796-79-1 Pen Press Publishers, London, 2001; xv+209pp; £9.99
(Contact: penpress[at]btconnect.com; tel: +44 20 7607 0517; address: 39-41 North Road, Islington, London N7 9DP)

Not so much a book – more an extended fireside disquisition from someone older and wiser than most of the rest of us. Carl F. Flesch, son of the violinist Carl Flesch, made his prescient escape from Hitler in 1934, at a time when many Jews and anti-Nazis thought that such an aberration couldn't last and was bound to collapse in a year or two. Now, over sixty years later, he recalls what it was like to pitch up in this green and pleasant land. Flesch's early flight gave him a ringside seat to observe the later waves of refugees, which may in part account for his ability to stand back and document the often amusing discrepancies between British and German-Jewish mores thrown into relief with the arrival of the Hitlerflüchtlinge in Britain. Flesch doesn't deal with the broader political aspects of the meeting of the two cultures and the decidedly sour official reception the British government extended – sour enough to confine most of the immigrants to internment camps when war broke out (Hans Gál once told me: 'It was a very curious policy, to lock up Hitler's best enemies'). Instead, Flesch focuses on the minor misunderstandings of two different sets of tradition: cultural, sexual, social, linguistic, moral, and anything else that's relevant – and the scope for mutual incomprehension will startle anyone homogenised by the levelling influence of today's international TV culture. Flesch is particularly interesting when he compares the anti-Semitism he knew in Germany – before the Nazis really tightened the screws – and the softer-centred prejudice he encountered in 1930s Britain.

There is much gentle wisdom in this book, and a considerable amount of wit. At the age of 91, Flesch cites the anomalies that amused him half-a-century old as if they had occurred yesterday, reinforcing them with his memories of contemporary banter. Sometimes the jests he remembers are real groaners – jokes age about as well as milk – but some are still funny (one refugee claims that he is trying to polish up his English; his friend suggests that he would be better advised to english up his Polish).

His publishers have not served him especially well: some attentive proof-reading would not have come amiss, there has been no thought at all to design and presentation, and the author could have been warned, just now and then, that he was rambling. Still, as far as I am aware, there hasn't been a book before now to chart these particular waters, and this one does it well. With a calm humanity that perhaps comes only with the dignity of old age, it takes us back to a world that few will now recall – and, indeed, had almost gone before I was born. Martin Anderson

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14. A Special Offer from Toccata Press

My distributor is proposing to charge me for stocks of books held at his warehouse, which means that I must think about storing them elsewhere or reducing the quantity. A logical step in the second direction is to offer the entire Toccata Press catalogue at a reduced price to groups who might be interested, and to keep things simple I propose to make it half-price across the board. You can consult the catalogue online at
www.drakeint.co.uk/toccata-press,
where you'll also find full directions for ordering. I have to ask for a minimum order value of £20 or equivalent, with £2 p&p per UK order and post-free above £30; postage charges for overseas orders will be calculated by the distributor.

If any of these titles appeals for potential use in course work and you would like to order in bulk, please let me know so that we can arrange a special price – I am happy to offer substantial discounts for such sales.

With thanks -— Martin Anderson Toccata Press

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15. Record News and Suppressed Music from Jewish Music Distribution

We recommend the following new recordings and invite reviews of these and other relevant discs. Contact for any recordings of suppressed music

Schreker Complete Songs, Volume 2

Jochen Kupfer (baritone) and Anne Buter (mezzo soprano) accompanied by Reinild Mees (piano). Produced by the Foundation for 20th Century Music, Amsterdam, this CD is on the Channel Classics label which has many other interesting recordings in this genre.

See their website: www.channelclassics.com

Schreker Orchestral Works Val.

Romantic Suite, Fünf Gesange, Prelude to Das Spielwerk', Vorspiel zu einer grossen Oper

BBC Philharmonic/Vassily Sinaisky/Katerina Karneus (soprano)

Chandos CHAN 9951 www.chandos.net

Zemlinsky

Symphony in B-flat major, Prelude to 'Es war einmal...', Sinfonietta op. 23

Czech Philharmonic Orchestra/Antony Beaumont

Nimbus NI 5682 www.nimbus.ltd.uk

JMD can supply recordings of suppressed music for you or your institution, including the Decca recordings of 'Entartete Musik', produced by Michael Haas, to any destination worldwide. Contact us with your requests. Soon there will be listings of all recordings available on the JMD pages on the JMI Website www.jmi.org.uk/jmd . If you have any recordings that you would like to add to this list, please email JMD as above.

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16. JMI International Forum for Suppressed Music
President Sir Simon Rattle

This Newsletter is published by the International Forum for Suppressed Music

Executive Committee and Editorial Board:

Michael Haas, Executive Producer 'Entartete Musik' Series, Decca
Erik Levi, Royal Holloway University of London
Alexander Knapp, Joe Loss Lecturer in Jewish Music, SOAS, University of London
Lloyd Moore, Boosey and Hawkes
Martin Anderson, Toccata Press
Geraldine Auerbach MBE, Director, Jewish Music Institute, SOAS

Advisory Board:

Brendan G Carroll, International Korngold Society
Evelyn Chi-Yi Chan, Friends of Schreker/Weigl Foundation, Paris
Albrecht Dümling, Musica Reanimata and 'Entartete Musik' Exhibition Curator, Berlin
Christopher Hailey, Franz Schreker Foundation LA and Schoenberg Institut, Vienna
Martin Schüssler, Rathaus Foundation, New York, Berlin

Patrons:

Vilem Tausky, Matthias Goerne, John Mauceri

The International Forum for Suppressed Music (IFSM) was established in September 1999, by the Jewish Music Institute, (JMI) at the School of Oriental and African Studies, (SOAS) University of London, as a platform to bring together all those working in the field of suppressed music. Although its early focus is on composers who suffered under the Third Reich, the IFSM is also platform for examining music under other totalitarian regimes.

IFSM Projects

The International Forum for Suppressed Music has embarked on a number of projects, among them, to record the oral testimony of composers and musicians of the early part of the twentieth century in Central Europe, their families and friends. It is preparing to receive the archives of musicians of the period, establishing databases of the repertoire, developing major enterprises in the study, reconstruction, performance and recording of this music, and publishing new scholarship as well as material not hitherto available in English. Many projects are lined up and awaiting funding to set them in motion. The establishment of this Forum, and the development of its work, is endeavouring to meet the needs of audiences, musicians, promoters and scholars the world over.

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The Jewish Music Institute is an independent Arts organisation based at SOAS, University of London. It is an international focus bringing the ancient yet contemporary musical culture of the Jews to the mainstream British cultural, academic and social life. Its programmes of education, performance and information highlight many aspects of Jewish music throughout the ages and across the globe for people of all ages, backgrounds and cultures.